Strength of materials is an important component of automotive safety. Because safety is critical, testing standards are in place to ensure material performance. Therefore, a material composition analysis must be done to ensure the material strength is stable. In order to do this, product quality control staff conduct strength evaluations and composition analyses of raw materials used in automobiles, including metals, resins, and other raw materials. Hardness tests results of steering, brake components, doors, drive train parts and among many other automotive components are important for strength evaluations and are mandated to provide a safe vehicle.
The railway system still remains an important role in developed countries for the mass moving of people and materials. Passenger trains are crossing Continents at impressive speeds in the East at the same time cargo wagons are hitting load-by-axle records in North America. Railway wheels and tracks are a critical component to this system, as any failure can lead to derailment, potentially causing casualties and financial losses.
Perhaps one of the greatest human innovations in the history of engineering is the ability to fly. Aerospace is a demanding industry for new product development and quality control. During the early developments in the aerospace industry it became very clear, quickly, that strength tolerances for each material and for each individual part where crucial to build safe aircrafts.
The hardness test is the most widely used test for evaluating the mechanical properties of metals and other materials as raw materials or finished product. Hardness testing is typically performed on new components but can also be used on in-service components to identify any issues of wear and tear. Hardness testing can reveal susceptibility to cracking as a result of exposure to environmental constituents such as hydrogen sulphide. It can also identify degradation, brittlement and softening as a result of exposure to elevated temperatures (e.g. fire damage). For some metals, hardness test results can be used to estimate the material’s tensile strength, using certain Conversion tables.